OWASP Secure Headers

=Main=

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==OWASP Secure Headers Project==

The OWASP Secure Headers Project describes HTTP response headers that your application can use to increase the security of your application. Once set, these HTTP response headers can restrict modern browsers from running into easily preventable vulnerabilities. The OWASP Secure Headers Project intends to raise awareness and use of these headers.

==Introduction==

HTTP headers are well known and also despised. Seeking the balance between usability and security developers implement functionality through the headers that can make your more versatile or secure application. But in practice how the headers are being implemented? What sites follow the best implementation practices? Big companies, small, all or none?

==Description==

We aim to publish reports on header usage stats, developments and changes. Code libraries that make these headers easily accessible to developers on a range of platforms. Data sets concerning the general usage of these headers.

==Licensing== OWASP Secure Headers is free to use. It is licensed under the [https://github.com/oshp/headers/blob/master/LICENSE Apache 2.0 License].

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== Project Leader ==

[[User:Riramar Ricardo Iramar]]
[[User:Amenezes Alexandre Menezes]]

== Project Contributors ==

[[User:Jmanico Jim Manico]]

== Related Projects ==

  • [[OWASP_Application_Security_Verification_Standard_Project OWASP Application Security Verification Standard Project]]
  • [[OWASP_Top_Ten_Project OWASP Top Ten Project]]

== Quick Links ==

  • [https://github.com/oshp/ Project GitHub Organization]
  • [https://hub.docker.com/r/oshp/ Docker Hub Organization]
  • [http://oshp.bsecteam.com Demo [develop preview]]
  • [https://github.com/riramar/hsecscan hsecscan A security scanner for HTTP response headers]
  • [https://lists.owasp.org/mailman/listinfo/owasp_secure_headers_project Project Email List]
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== News and Events ==

  • [23 Jul 2018] Included Feature-Policy header
  • [20 Oct 2017] OWASP Secure Headers Project on [https://github.com/OWASP/Top10/blob/master/2017/OWASP%20Top%2010%202017%20RC2%20Final.pdf OWASP Top 10 RC2]
  • [14 Mar 2017] [https://hub.docker.com/r/oshp Docker Hub Organization]
  • [15 Oct 2016] [http://roadsec.com.br/curitiba2016/ RoadSec Curitiba 2016 Presentation]
  • [20/21 Set 2016] [http://mindthesec.com.br/ricardo-iramar-dos-santos Mind The Sec 2016 Presentation]
  • [05 Sep 2016] [https://github.com/oshp/ Project Github Organization]
  • [01 Sep 2016] Included X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies header
  • [14 Dec 2015] Reborn from the ashes

==Classifications==

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=Headers=

The following contains a list of HTTP response headers related to security.

==Response Headers==

  • [[#hsts HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)]]
  • [[#hpkp Public Key Pinning Extension for HTTP (HPKP)]]
  • [[#xfo X-Frame-Options]]
  • [[#xxxsp X-XSS-Protection]]
  • [[#xcto X-Content-Type-Options]]
  • [[#csp Content-Security-Policy]]
  • [[#xpcdp X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies]]
  • [[#rp Referrer-Policy]]
  • [[#ect Expect-CT]]
  • [[#fp Feature-Policy]]

==<div id="hsts">HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)</div>==

HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) is a web security policy mechanism which helps to protect websites against protocol [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Downgrade_attack downgrade attacks] and [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Session_hijacking_attack cookie hijacking]. It allows web servers to declare that web browsers (or other complying user agents) should only interact with it using secure HTTPS connections, and never via the insecure HTTP protocol. HSTS is an IETF standards track protocol and is specified in RFC 6797. A server implements an HSTS policy by supplying a header (Strict-Transport-Security) over an HTTPS connection (HSTS headers over HTTP are ignored).

===Values===

{| class=”wikitable” |- ! Value ! Description |- | max-age=SECONDS | The time, in seconds, that the browser should remember that this site is only to be accessed using HTTPS. |- | includeSubDomains | If this optional parameter is specified, this rule applies to all of the site’s subdomains as well. |}

===Example===

Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=31536000 ; includeSubDomains

===References===

  • https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6797
  • https://www.owasp.org/index.php/HTTP_Strict_Transport_Security
  • https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Test_HTTP_Strict_Transport_Security_(OTG-CONFIG-007)
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTTP_Strict_Transport_Security
  • https://www.chromium.org/hsts
  • https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Security/HTTP_strict_transport_security
  • https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/HTTP_Strict_Transport_Security_for_Apache_NGINX_and_Lighttpd.html

==<div id="hpkp">Public Key Pinning Extension for HTTP (HPKP)</div>==

HTTP Public Key Pinning (HPKP) is a security mechanism which allows HTTPS websites to resist impersonation by attackers using mis-issued or otherwise fraudulent certificates. (For example, sometimes attackers can compromise certificate authorities, and then can mis-issue certificates for a web origin.).

The HTTPS web server serves a list of public key hashes, and on subsequent connections clients expect that server to use one or more of those public keys in its certificate chain. Deploying HPKP safely will require operational and organizational maturity due to the risk that hosts may make themselves unavailable by pinning to a set of public key hashes that becomes invalid. With care, host operators can greatly reduce the risk of [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Man-in-the-middle_attack man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks] and other false authentication problems for their users without incurring undue risk.

Before implement HPKP please read this https://www.chromestatus.com/feature/5903385005916160.

===Values===

{| class=”wikitable” |- ! Value ! Description |- | pin-sha256=”" | The quoted string is the Base64 encoded Subject Public Key Information (SPKI) fingerprint. It is possible to specify multiple pins for different public keys. Some browsers might allow other hashing algorithms than SHA-256 in the future. |- | max-age=SECONDS | The time, in seconds, that the browser should remember that this site is only to be accessed using one of the pinned keys. |- | includeSubDomains | If this optional parameter is specified, this rule applies to all of the site's subdomains as well. |- | report-uri="" | If this optional parameter is specified, pin validation failures are reported to the given URL. |}

===Example===

Public-Key-Pins: pin-sha256="d6qzRu9zOECb90Uez27xWltNsj0e1Md7GkYYkVoZWmM="; pin-sha256="E9CZ9INDbd+2eRQozYqqbQ2yXLVKB9+xcprMF+44U1g="; report-uri="http://example.com/pkp-report"; max-age=10000; includeSubDomains

===References===

  • https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7469
  • https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Certificate_and_Public_Key_Pinning#HTTP_pinning
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTTP_Public_Key_Pinning
  • https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Security/Public_Key_Pinning
  • https://raymii.org/s/articles/HTTP_Public_Key_Pinning_Extension_HPKP.html
  • https://labs.detectify.com/2016/07/05/what-hpkp-is-but-isnt/
  • https://blog.qualys.com/ssllabs/2016/09/06/is-http-public-key-pinning-dead
  • https://scotthelme.co.uk/im-giving-up-on-hpkp/
  • https://groups.google.com/a/chromium.org/forum/m/#!msg/blink-dev/he9tr7p3rZ8/eNMwKPmUBAAJ

==<div id="xfo">X-Frame-Options</div>==

X-Frame-Options response header improve the protection of web applications against [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Clickjacking Clickjacking]. It declares a policy communicated from a host to the client browser on whether the browser must not display the transmitted content in frames of other web pages.

===Values===

{| class=”wikitable” |- ! Value ! Description |- | deny | No rendering within a frame. |- | sameorigin | No rendering if origin mismatch. |- | allow-from: DOMAIN | Allows rendering if framed by frame loaded from DOMAIN. |}

===Example===

X-Frame-Options: deny

===References===

  • https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7034
  • https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-websec-x-frame-options-01
  • https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-websec-frame-options-00
  • https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/X-Frame-Options
  • https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Clickjacking
  • https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/ieinternals/2010/03/30/combating-clickjacking-with-x-frame-options/

==<div id="xxxsp">X-XSS-Protection</div>==

This header enables the [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Cross-site_Scripting_(XSS) Cross-site scripting (XSS)] filter in your browser.

===Values===

{| class=”wikitable” |- ! Value ! Description |- | 0 | Filter disabled. |- | 1 | Filter enabled. If a cross-site scripting attack is detected, in order to stop the attack, the browser will sanitize the page. |- | 1; mode=block | Filter enabled. Rather than sanitize the page, when a XSS attack is detected, the browser will prevent rendering of the page. |- | 1; report=http://[YOURDOMAIN]/your_report_URI | Filter enabled. The browser will sanitize the page and report the violation. This is a Chromium function utilizing CSP violation reports to send details to a URI of your choice. |}

===Example===

X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block

===References===

  • https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Cross-site_Scripting_(XSS)
  • https://www.virtuesecurity.com/blog/understanding-xss-auditor/
  • https://www.veracode.com/blog/2014/03/guidelines-for-setting-security-headers
  • http://zinoui.com/blog/security-http-headers#x-xss-protection

==<div id="xcto">X-Content-Type-Options</div>==

Setting this header will prevent the browser from [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_sniffing interpreting files as something else than declared by the content type] in the HTTP headers.

===Values===

{| class=”wikitable” |- ! Value ! Description |- | nosniff | Will prevent the browser from MIME-sniffing a response away from the declared content-type. |}

===Example===

X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff

===References===

  • https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/gg622941%28v=vs.85%29.aspx
  • https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/ie/2008/09/02/ie8-security-part-vi-beta-2-update/

==<div id="csp">Content-Security-Policy</div>==

A Content Security Policy (CSP) requires careful tuning and precise definition of the policy. If enabled, CSP has significant impact on the way browsers render pages (e.g., inline JavaScript disabled by default and must be explicitly allowed in policy). CSP prevents a wide range of attacks, including [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Cross-site_Scripting_(XSS) Cross-site scripting] and other cross-site injections.

===Values===

{| class=”wikitable” |- ! Directive ! Description |- | base-uri | Define the base uri for relative uri. |- | default-src | Define loading policy for all resources type in case of a resource type dedicated directive is not defined (fallback). |- | script-src | Define which scripts the protected resource can execute. |- | object-src | Define from where the protected resource can load plugins. |- | style-src | Define which styles (CSS) the user applies to the protected resource. |- | img-src | Define from where the protected resource can load images. |- | media-src | Define from where the protected resource can load video and audio. |- | frame-src | Deprecated and replaced by child-src. Define from where the protected resource can embed frames. |- | child-src | Define from where the protected resource can embed frames. |- | frame-ancestors | Define from where the protected resource can be embedded in frames. |- | font-src | Define from where the protected resource can load fonts. |- | connect-src | Define which URIs the protected resource can load using script interfaces. |- | manifest-src | Define from where the protected resource can load manifest. |- | form-action | Define which URIs can be used as the action of HTML form elements. |- | sandbox | Specifies an HTML sandbox policy that the user agent applies to the protected resource. |- | script-nonce | Define script execution by requiring the presence of the specified nonce on script elements. |- | plugin-types | Define the set of plugins that can be invoked by the protected resource by limiting the types of resources that can be embedded. |- | reflected-xss | Instructs a user agent to activate or deactivate any heuristics used to filter or block reflected cross-site scripting attacks, equivalent to the effects of the non-standard X-XSS-Protection header. |- | block-all-mixed-content | Prevent user agent from loading mixed content. |- | upgrade-insecure-requests | Instructs user agent to download insecure resources using HTTPS. |- | referrer | Define information user agent must send in Referer header. |- | report-uri | Specifies a URI to which the user agent sends reports about policy violation. |- | report-to | Specifies a group (defined in Report-To header) to which the user agent sends reports about policy violation. |}

===Example===

Content-Security-Policy: script-src 'self'

===References===

  • https://www.w3.org/TR/CSP/
  • https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Security/CSP
  • https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Content_Security_Policy
  • https://scotthelme.co.uk/content-security-policy-an-introduction/
  • https://report-uri.io
  • http://www.cspplayground.com/home
  • http://content-security-policy.com

==<div id="xpcdp">X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies</div>==

A cross-domain policy file is an XML document that grants a web client, such as Adobe Flash Player or Adobe Acrobat (though not necessarily limited to these), permission to handle data across domains. When clients request content hosted on a particular source domain and that content make requests directed towards a domain other than its own, the remote domain needs to host a cross-domain policy file that grants access to the source domain, allowing the client to continue the transaction. Normally a meta-policy is declared in the master policy file, but for those who can’t write to the root directory, they can also declare a meta-policy using the X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies HTTP response header.

===Values===

{| class=”wikitable” |- ! Value ! Description |- | none | No policy files are allowed anywhere on the target server, including this master policy file. |- | master-only | Only this master policy file is allowed. |- | by-content-type | [HTTP/HTTPS only] Only policy files served with Content-Type: text/x-cross-domain-policy are allowed. |- | by-ftp-filename | [FTP only] Only policy files whose file names are crossdomain.xml (i.e. URLs ending in /crossdomain.xml) are allowed. |- | all | All policy files on this target domain are allowed. |}

===Example===

X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies: none

===References===

  • https://www.adobe.com/devnet-docs/acrobatetk/tools/AppSec/xdomain.html
  • https://www.adobe.com/devnet/adobe-media-server/articles/cross-domain-xml-for-streaming.html
  • https://www.perpetual-beta.org/weblog/security-headers.html#rule-8470-2-establish-a-cross-domain-meta-policy
  • https://danielnixon.org/http-security-headers/
  • https://rorsecurity.info/portfolio/new-http-headers-for-more-security
  • https://github.com/twitter/secureheaders/issues/88

==<div id="rp">Referrer-Policy</div>==

The Referrer-Policy HTTP header governs which referrer information, sent in the Referer header, should be included with requests made.

===Values===

{| class=”wikitable” |- ! Value ! Description |- | no-referrer | The Referer header will be omitted entirely. No referrer information is sent along with requests. |- | no-referrer-when-downgrade | This is the user agent’s default behavior if no policy is specified. The origin is sent as referrer to a-priori as-much-secure destination (HTTPS->HTTPS), but isn’t sent to a less secure destination (HTTPS->HTTP). |- | origin | Only send the origin of the document as the referrer in all cases. The document https://example.com/page.html will send the referrer https://example.com/. |- | origin-when-cross-origin | Send a full URL when performing a same-origin request, but only send the origin of the document for other cases. |- | same-origin | A referrer will be sent for same-site origins, but cross-origin requests will contain no referrer information. |- | strict-origin | Only send the origin of the document as the referrer to a-priori as-much-secure destination (HTTPS->HTTPS), but don’t send it to a less secure destination (HTTPS->HTTP). |- | strict-origin-when-cross-origin | Send a full URL when performing a same-origin request, only send the origin of the document to a-priori as-much-secure destination (HTTPS->HTTPS), and send no header to a less secure destination (HTTPS->HTTP). |- | unsafe-url | Send a full URL (stripped from parameters) when performing a a same-origin or cross-origin request. |}

===Example===

Referrer-Policy: no-referrer

===References===

  • https://www.w3.org/TR/referrer-policy/
  • https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Referrer-Policy

==<div id="ect">Expect-CT</div>==

The Expect-CT header is used by a server to indicate that browsers should evaluate connections to the host emitting the header for [https://www.certificate-transparency.org Certificate Transparency] compliance.

===Values===

{| class=”wikitable” |- ! Value ! Description |- | report-uri | The optional report-uri directive indicates the URL to which the browser should report Expect-CT failures. |- | enforce | The optional enforce directive is a valueless directive that, if present, signals to the browser that compliance to the CT Policy should be enforced (rather than report-only) and that the browser should refuse future connections that violate its CT Policy. When both the enforce directive and report-uri directive are present, the configuration is referred to as an “enforce-and-report” configuration, signalling to the browser both that compliance to the CT Policy should be enforced and that violations should be reported. |- | max-age | The max-age directive specifies the number of seconds after the reception of the Expect-CT header field during which the browser should regard the host from whom the message was received as a Known Expect-CT Host. |}

===Example===

Expect-CT: max-age=86400, enforce, report-uri="https://foo.example/report"

===References===

  • https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-expect-ct-02
  • http://httpwg.org/http-extensions/expect-ct.html
  • https://scotthelme.co.uk/a-new-security-header-expect-ct/

==<div id="fp">Feature-Policy</div>==

The Feature-Policy header allows developers to selectively enable and disable use of various browser features and APIs..

===Values===

{| class=”wikitable” |- ! Value ! Description |- | accelerometer | Controls access to accelerometer sensors on the device. |- | ambient-light-sensor | Controls access to ambient light sensors on the device. |- | autoplay | Controls access to autoplay through play() and autoplay. |- | camera | Controls access to video input devices. |- | encrypted-media | Controls whether requestMediaKeySystemAccess() is allowed. |- | fullscreen | Controls whether requestFullscreen() is allowed. |- | geolocation | Controls access to Geolocation interface. |- | gyroscope | Controls access to gyroscope sensors on the device. |- | magnetometer | Controls access to magnetometer sensors on the device. |- | microphone | Controls access to audio input devices. |- | midi | Controls access to requestMIDIAccess() method. |- | payment | Controls access to PaymentRequest interface. |- | picture-in-picture | Controls access to Picture in Picture. |- | speaker | Controls access to audio output devices. |- | usb | Controls access to USB devices. |- | vibrate | Controls access to vibrate() method. |- | vr | Controls access to VR displays. |}

===Example===

Feature-Policy: vibrate 'none'; geolocation 'none'

===References===

  • https://wicg.github.io/feature-policy/
  • https://github.com/WICG/feature-policy/blob/master/features.md
  • https://scotthelme.co.uk/a-new-security-header-feature-policy/

=Compatibility Matrix=

==Browser Support==

{| class=”wikitable” style=”text-align: center;” ! !! Internet Explorer !! Edge !! Firefox !! Chrome !! Safari !! Opera !! Android |- ! HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) | 11 || 13 || 47 || 49 || 9.1 || 39 || 4.4 |- ! Public Key Pinning Extension for HTTP (HPKP) | NS || NS || 47 || 49 || NS || 39 || 51 |- ! X-Frame-Options | 8 || 13 || 47 || 49 || 9.1 || 39 || 4.4 |- ! X-XSS-Protection | 8 || || NS || 4+ || || || |- ! X-Content-Type-Options | 8 || || 51 || 1.0 || NS || 13 || |- ! Content-Security-Policy | 11 || 13 || 47 || 49 || 9.1 || 39 || 4.4 |- ! X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies | || || || || || || |- ! Referrer-Policy |NS||NS||50||56||NS||43|| |- ! Expect-CT | || || || 61 || || 48 || |- ! Feature-Policy | || || || || || || |}

NS = Not Supported

  • = Specified version and above

==References==

  • HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) ** https://blogs.windows.com/msedgedev/2015/06/09/http-strict-transport-security-comes-to-internet-explorer-11-on-windows-8-1-and-windows-7/ ** https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTTP_Strict_Transport_Security ** https://www.owasp.org/index.php/HTTP_Strict_Transport_Security_Cheat_Sheet ** http://caniuse.com/#search=HSTS
  • Public Key Pinning Extension for HTTP (HPKP) ** http://caniuse.com/#search=Public%20Key%20Pinning ** https://groups.google.com/a/chromium.org/forum/m/#!msg/blink-dev/he9tr7p3rZ8/eNMwKPmUBAAJ
  • X-Frame-Options ** http://caniuse.com/#search=X-Frame-Options
  • X-XSS-Protection ** https://wiki.mozilla.org/Security/Features/XSS_Filter ** https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/ieinternals/2011/01/31/controlling-the-xss-filter/
  • X-Content-Type-Options ** https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/X-Content-Type-Options
  • Content-Security-Policy ** http://caniuse.com/#search=Content%20Security%20Policy
  • X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies ** https://www.adobe.com/devnet-docs/acrobatetk/tools/AppSec/xdomain.html
  • Referrer-Policy ** https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/Referrer-Policy
  • Expect-CT ** https://www.chromestatus.com/feature/5677171733430272
  • Feature-Policy ** [update needed]

=Stats= Coming soon… for now check [https://oshp.bsecteam.com this].

=Technical Resources= This section cover a list of tools to analyze, develop and administrate HTTP secure headers in order to help achieve more secure and trustworthy web systems.

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! ead    
  - valign=”top”  
  width=”50%” bgcolor=”#d9d9d9” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” ’'’Analysis Tools’’’
  width=”“50%”” bgcolor=”#d9d9d9” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” ’'’Reference’’’

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’hsecscan’’’

A security scanner for HTTP response headers.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Github: https://github.com/riramar/hsecscan

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’headers’’’

Python script to get some response headers from Alexa top sites file and store in a MySQL database.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Github: https://github.com/oshp/headers/

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’securityheaders.io’’’

There are services out there that will analyse the HTTP response headers of other sites but I also wanted to add a rating system to the results. The HTTP response headers that this site analyses provide huge levels of protection and it's important that sites deploy them. Hopefully, by providing an easy mechanism to assess them, and further information on how to deploy missing headers, we can drive up the usage of security based headers across the web.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Site: https://securityheaders.io/

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’Mozilla Observatory’’’

A Mozilla project designed to help developers, system administrators, and security professionals configure their sites safely and securely.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Site: https://mozilla.github.io/http-observatory-website/

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’High-Tech Bridge Web Security Scanner’’’

An online service that will retrieve and analyse headers syntax and proper configuration in a comprehensive way. It will be able for instance to highlight Public-Key-Pins that matches one certificate of the chain or if Content-Security-Policy contains values that could be unsafe or too permissive.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Site: https://www.htbridge.com/websec/

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’Check Your Headers’’’

Just another web scanner for HTTP response headers.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Site: https://cyh.herokuapp.com/cyh

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’Recx Security Analyser’’’

Chrome extension that allows the inspection of security aspects of a site's HTTP headers, cookies and other key security settings.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Site: https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/recx-security-analyser/ljafjhbjenhgcgnikniijchkngljgjda

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’KickOff’’’

While each project you launch may have a different feature set, they often share many of the same performance, SEO and security requirements. This tool aims to automate the process of checking your list of requirements shortly before launch or directly after a deployment.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Site: https://github.com/frickelbruder/kickoff

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’testssl.sh’’’

Easy to use shell script which tests not only SSL/TLS encryption but also checks common headers and analyzes those. Output is screen, JSON, CSV and HTML.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Site: https://github.com/drwetter/testssl.sh

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’DrHEADer’’’

DrHEADer helps with the audit of security headers received in response to a single request or a list of requests.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Site: https://github.com/Santandersecurityresearch/DrHeader
}
{ width=”100%” cellpadding=”7” cellspacing=”0” <col width="325"><col width="316">  
! ead    
  - valign=”top”  
  width=”50%” bgcolor=”#d9d9d9” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” ’'’Development Libraries’’’
  width=”“50%”” bgcolor=”#d9d9d9” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” ’'’Language’’’
  width=”“50%”” bgcolor=”#d9d9d9” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” ’'’Reference’’’

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’secureheaders’’’

Security related headers all in one gem.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Ruby

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Github: https://github.com/twitter/secureheaders

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’Security Header Injection Module (SHIM)’’’

SHIM is a HTTP module that provides protection for many vulnerabilities by injecting security-specific HTTP headers into ASP.NET web applications.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* ASP.NET
width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm”
* Site: https://shim.codeplex.com/

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’Spring Security’’’

Spring Security’s support for adding various security headers to the response.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Java
width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm”
* Site: http://docs.spring.io/spring-security/site/docs/current/reference/html/headers.html

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’SecureHeaders’’’

A PHP class aiming to make the use of browser security features more accessible.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* PHP
width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm”
* Site: https://github.com/aidantwoods/SecureHeaders

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’rack-secure_headers’’’

Security related HTTP headers for Rack applications.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Rack
width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm”
* Site: https://github.com/frodsan/rack-secure_headers

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’helmet and hood’’’

Node.js (express).

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Node.js (express)
width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm”
* Site: https://github.com/helmetjs/helmet * Site: https://github.com/seanmonstar/hood

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’blankie’’’

A CSP plugin for hapi.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Node.js (hapi)
width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm”
* Site: https://github.com/nlf/blankie

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’NWebsec’’’

NWebsec consists of several security libraries for ASP.NET applications.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* ASP.NET
width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm”
* Site: https://docs.nwebsec.com

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’django-csp + commonware; django-security’’’

django-csp + commonware; django-security.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Python
width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm”
* Site: https://github.com/mozilla/django-csp * Site: https://github.com/jsocol/commonware/ * Site: https://github.com/sdelements/django-security

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’Secure’’’

Secure is a lightweight package that adds optional security headers and cookie attributes for Python web frameworks.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Python
width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm”
* Site: https://github.com/cakinney/secure

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’secureheader’’’

Package secureheader adds some HTTP header fields widely considered to improve safety of HTTP requests.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Go
width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm”
* Site: https://github.com/kr/secureheader

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’secure_headers’’’

This Plug will automatically apply several security headers to the Plug.Conn response. By design SecureHeaders will attempt to apply the most strict security policy. Although, security headers are configurable and are validated to avoid misconfiguration.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Elixir
width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm”
* Site: https://github.com/anotherhale/secure_headers

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’dropwizard-web-security’’’

A bundle for applying default web security functionality to a dropwizard application.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Dropwizard
width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm”
* Site: https://github.com/palantir/dropwizard-web-security

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’ember-cli-content-security-policy’’’

This addon makes it easy to use Content Security Policy (CSP) in your project. It can be deployed either via a Content-Security-Policy header sent from the Ember CLI Express server, or as a meta tag in the index.html file.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Ember.js
width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm”
* Site: https://github.com/rwjblue/ember-cli-content-security-policy/
}
{ width=”100%” cellpadding=”7” cellspacing=”0” <col width="325"><col width="316">  
! ead    
  - valign=”top”  
  width=”50%” bgcolor=”#d9d9d9” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” ’'’Operation Tools’’’
  width=”“50%”” bgcolor=”#d9d9d9” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” ’'’Web Servers Supported’’’
  width=”“50%”” bgcolor=”#d9d9d9” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” ’'’Reference’’’

|- valign=”top” | width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” | ‘'’http_hardening’’’

Puppet module to enable, configure and manage secure http headers on web servers.

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Apache HTTP Server * NGINX * Lighttpd

| width=”“50%”” style=”border: 1.00pt solid #000001; padding: 0.18cm” |

* Github: https://github.com/amenezes/http_hardening * Puppet Forge: https://forge.puppet.com/amenezes/http_hardening
}

=Top Websites Examples=

HTTP response headers from the top websites in the world.

Command used to extract the headers:

curl -L -A "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/50.0.2661.102 Safari/537.36" -s -D - https://www.example.com -o /dev/null

==Google==

$ curl -L -A "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/62.0.3202.89 Safari/537.36" -s -D - https://www.google.com -o /dev/null
HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: https://www.google.com.br/?gws_rd=cr&dcr=0&ei=rtcKWpnkNYaawATUn6agCg
Cache-Control: private
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
P3P: CP="This is not a P3P policy! See g.co/p3phelp for more info."
Date: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:46:54 GMT
Server: gws
Content-Length: 273
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN
Set-Cookie: NID=117=GENZIllQGZFmhCBmap1YThta_hUvvZ9Xm517XXWpF9eCKNqW6_luvZm1b_ai7BN4lAA2pP2Z22BveHqjUrqZxpY38NKSYLKWFGrVh6tGAHcbNw6OHQ_F77bNJWV0BZOZ; expires=Wed, 16-May-2018 11:46:54 GMT; path=/; domain=.google.com; HttpOnly
Alt-Svc: quic=":443"; ma=2592000; v="41,39,38,37,35"

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:46:55 GMT
Expires: -1
Cache-Control: private, max-age=0
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=3600
P3P: CP="This is not a P3P policy! See g.co/p3phelp for more info."
Server: gws
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN
Set-Cookie: 1P_JAR=2017-11-14-11; expires=Thu, 14-Dec-2017 11:46:55 GMT; path=/; domain=.google.com.br
Set-Cookie: NID=117=fR73jhascV3B9fbiVfYdvGlilR_tgYNhela9rXdCavJiJoYpkNSTq0NtFqNSV8im602zM7Of-S1GUr_ncSuT3p6tzlw3e6_9ccqPttSuniTHWZEgBtUL1VXTgXBdjKMe; expires=Wed, 16-May-2018 11:46:55 GMT; path=/; domain=.google.com.br; HttpOnly
Alt-Svc: quic=":443"; ma=2592000; v="41,39,38,37,35"
Accept-Ranges: none
Vary: Accept-Encoding
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

==Facebook==

$ curl -L -A "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/62.0.3202.89 Safari/537.36" -s -D - https://www.facebook.com -o /dev/null
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
X-XSS-Protection: 0
Pragma: no-cache
content-security-policy: default-src * data: blob:;script-src *.facebook.com *.fbcdn.net *.facebook.net *.google-analytics.com *.virtualearth.net *.google.com 127.0.0.1:* *.spotilocal.com:* 'unsafe-inline' 'unsafe-eval' fbstatic-a.akamaihd.net fbcdn-static-b-a.akamaihd.net *.atlassolutions.com blob: data: 'self';style-src data: blob: 'unsafe-inline' *;connect-src *.facebook.com *.fbcdn.net *.facebook.net *.spotilocal.com:* *.akamaihd.net wss://*.facebook.com:* https://fb.scanandcleanlocal.com:* *.atlassolutions.com attachment.fbsbx.com ws://localhost:* blob: *.cdninstagram.com 'self' chrome-extension://boadgeojelhgndaghljhdicfkmllpafd chrome-extension://dliochdbjfkdbacpmhlcpmleaejidimm;
Cache-Control: private, no-cache, no-store, must-revalidate
X-Frame-Options: DENY
expect-ct: max-age=10, report-uri="http://reports.fb.com/expectct/"
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=15552000; preload
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
Expires: Sat, 01 Jan 2000 00:00:00 GMT
Set-Cookie: fr=0Bf96eRMD0zCulvzh..BaCtgp.jl.AAA.0.0.BaCtgp.AWVGQojt; expires=Mon, 12-Feb-2018 11:48:57 GMT; Max-Age=7776000; path=/; domain=.facebook.com; secure; httponly
Set-Cookie: sb=KdgKWqMf8J84KfUg99AxaG1B; expires=Thu, 14-Nov-2019 11:48:57 GMT; Max-Age=63072000; path=/; domain=.facebook.com; secure; httponly
Vary: Accept-Encoding
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
X-FB-Debug: llncdeFRYCCoWkXqx2VCdUGtdHZvjsr6OA7JNrtEe18ZuZAqcKCH4km9SSkNTHIcuXmzwRMzyBQt0Uz7T6ltQg==
Date: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:48:57 GMT
Transfer-Encoding: chunked
Connection: keep-alive

==Twitter==

$ curl -L -A "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/62.0.3202.89 Safari/537.36" -s -D - https://www.twitter.com -o /dev/null
HTTP/1.1 301 Moved Permanently
content-length: 0
date: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:50:11 GMT
location: https://twitter.com/
server: tsa_d
set-cookie: personalization_id="v1_nyz+ctxxDiBbh4s6VjzQIg=="; Expires=Thu, 14 Nov 2019 11:50:11 UTC; Path=/; Domain=.twitter.com
set-cookie: guest_id=v1%3A151066021116455299; Expires=Thu, 14 Nov 2019 11:50:11 UTC; Path=/; Domain=.twitter.com
strict-transport-security: max-age=631138519
x-connection-hash: d9a9eea848268dae67e7743d5bfd2dd5
x-response-time: 135

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
cache-control: no-cache, no-store, must-revalidate, pre-check=0, post-check=0
content-length: 345977
content-security-policy: script-src https://connect.facebook.net https://cm.g.doubleclick.net https://ssl.google-analytics.com https://graph.facebook.com 'nonce-f/+1f61E6Z0qq8p+L4UIQw==' https://twitter.com 'unsafe-eval' https://*.twimg.com https://api.twitter.com https://analytics.twitter.com https://publish.twitter.com https://ton.twitter.com https://syndication.twitter.com https://www.google.com https://t.tellapart.com https://platform.twitter.com https://www.google-analytics.com blob: 'self'; frame-ancestors 'self'; font-src https://twitter.com https://*.twimg.com data: https://ton.twitter.com https://fonts.gstatic.com https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com https://netdna.bootstrapcdn.com 'self'; media-src https://rmpdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://prod-video-eu-central-1.pscp.tv https://v.cdn.vine.co https://dwo3ckksxlb0v.cloudfront.net https://twitter.com https://amp.twimg.com https://smmdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://*.twimg.com https://prod-video-eu-west-1.pscp.tv https://rmmdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://prod-video-us-west-2.pscp.tv https://prod-video-us-west-1.pscp.tv https://prod-video-ap-northeast-1.pscp.tv https://smdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://ton.twitter.com https://rmdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://mmdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://smpdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://prod-video-sa-east-1.pscp.tv https://mdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://prod-video-ap-southeast-2.pscp.tv https://mtc.cdn.vine.co https://dev-video-us-west-2.pscp.tv https://prod-video-us-east-1.pscp.tv blob: 'self' https://prod-video-ap-southeast-1.pscp.tv https://mpdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://dev-video-eu-west-1.pscp.tv; connect-src https://rmpdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://prod-video-eu-central-1.pscp.tv https://graph.facebook.com https://*.giphy.com https://dwo3ckksxlb0v.cloudfront.net https://vmaprel.snappytv.com https://smmdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://*.twimg.com https://embed.pscp.tv https://api.twitter.com https://prod-video-eu-west-1.pscp.tv https://rmmdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://prod-video-us-west-2.pscp.tv https://pay.twitter.com https://prod-video-us-west-1.pscp.tv https://analytics.twitter.com https://vmap.snappytv.com https://*.twprobe.net https://prod-video-ap-northeast-1.pscp.tv https://smdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://syndication.twitter.com https://sentry.io https://rmdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://media.riffsy.com https://mmdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://embed.periscope.tv https://smpdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://prod-video-sa-east-1.pscp.tv https://vmapstage.snappytv.com https://upload.twitter.com https://proxsee.pscp.tv https://mdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://prod-video-ap-southeast-2.pscp.tv https://dev-video-us-west-2.pscp.tv https://prod-video-us-east-1.pscp.tv 'self' https://vmap.grabyo.com https://prod-video-ap-southeast-1.pscp.tv https://mpdhdsnappytv-vh.akamaihd.net https://dev-video-eu-west-1.pscp.tv; style-src https://fonts.googleapis.com https://twitter.com https://*.twimg.com https://translate.googleapis.com https://ton.twitter.com 'unsafe-inline' https://platform.twitter.com https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com https://netdna.bootstrapcdn.com 'self'; object-src https://twitter.com https://pbs.twimg.com; default-src 'self'; frame-src https://staticxx.facebook.com https://twitter.com https://*.twimg.com https://5415703.fls.doubleclick.net https://player.vimeo.com https://pay.twitter.com https://www.facebook.com https://ton.twitter.com https://syndication.twitter.com https://vine.co twitter: https://www.youtube.com https://platform.twitter.com https://upload.twitter.com https://s-static.ak.facebook.com https://4337974.fls.doubleclick.net https://8122179.fls.doubleclick.net 'self' https://donate.twitter.com; img-src https://prod-video-eu-central-1.pscp.tv https://prod-profile.pscp.tv https://graph.facebook.com https://prod-thumbnail.pscp.tv https://*.giphy.com https://twitter.com https://*.twimg.com https://ad.doubleclick.net https://prod-video-eu-west-1.pscp.tv data: https://prod-video-us-west-2.pscp.tv https://prod-video-us-west-1.pscp.tv https://prod-video-ap-northeast-1.pscp.tv https://lumiere-a.akamaihd.net https://fbcdn-profile-a.akamaihd.net https://www.facebook.com https://ton.twitter.com https://*.fbcdn.net https://syndication.twitter.com https://media.riffsy.com https://www.google.com https://prod-profile.periscope.tv https://prod-video-sa-east-1.pscp.tv https://stats.g.doubleclick.net https://platform.twitter.com https://prod-video-ap-southeast-2.pscp.tv https://api.mapbox.com https://www.google-analytics.com https://dev-video-us-west-2.pscp.tv https://prod-video-us-east-1.pscp.tv blob: https://prod-thumbnail-small.pscp.tv https://prod-thumbnail-small.periscope.tv 'self' https://prod-thumbnail.periscope.tv https://prod-video-ap-southeast-1.pscp.tv https://dev-video-eu-west-1.pscp.tv; report-uri https://twitter.com/i/csp_report?a=NVQWGYLXFVZXO2LGOQ%3D%3D%3D%3D%3D%3D&ro=false;
content-type: text/html;charset=utf-8
date: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:50:11 GMT
expires: Tue, 31 Mar 1981 05:00:00 GMT
last-modified: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:50:11 GMT
pragma: no-cache
server: tsa_d
set-cookie: fm=0; Expires=Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:50:02 UTC; Path=/; Domain=.twitter.com; Secure; HTTPOnly
set-cookie: _twitter_sess=BAh7CSIKZmxhc2hJQzonQWN0aW9uQ29udHJvbGxlcjo6Rmxhc2g6OkZsYXNo%250ASGFzaHsABjoKQHVzZWR7ADoPY3JlYXRlZF9hdGwrCMOCXbpfAToMY3NyZl9p%250AZCIlOTk3MjYzYzc1NDhkOTA1ZTlhZTIyNGE2Zjk5Nzg0NTk6B2lkIiU0ODIw%250AZWRkNjc4Njg2M2IzYmI3ZTA3N2YxMTA4YzE5Nw%253D%253D--7abf7eef950088f9f728686ce29881ef501487dd; Path=/; Domain=.twitter.com; Secure; HTTPOnly
set-cookie: personalization_id="v1_rrHzrB5h0Qs1Oz4uhOjFJg=="; Expires=Thu, 14 Nov 2019 11:50:11 UTC; Path=/; Domain=.twitter.com
set-cookie: guest_id=v1%3A151066021139105511; Expires=Thu, 14 Nov 2019 11:50:11 UTC; Path=/; Domain=.twitter.com
set-cookie: ct0=ba98c8a6cb4c664151a98c8bd9eb4b4d; Expires=Tue, 14 Nov 2017 17:50:11 UTC; Path=/; Domain=.twitter.com; Secure
status: 200 OK
strict-transport-security: max-age=631138519
x-connection-hash: 769f9dcd87b9274776136b99b3181a44
x-content-type-options: nosniff
x-frame-options: SAMEORIGIN
x-response-time: 359
x-transaction: 007d216900cbc2ad
x-twitter-response-tags: BouncerCompliant
x-ua-compatible: IE=edge,chrome=1
x-xss-protection: 1; mode=block

==Github==

$ curl -L -A "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/62.0.3202.89 Safari/537.36" -s -D - https://www.github.com -o /dev/null
HTTP/1.1 301 Moved Permanently
Content-length: 0
Location: https://github.com/

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: GitHub.com
Date: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 11:51:27 GMT
Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
Transfer-Encoding: chunked
Status: 200 OK
Cache-Control: no-cache
Vary: X-PJAX
X-UA-Compatible: IE=Edge,chrome=1
Set-Cookie: logged_in=no; domain=.github.com; path=/; expires=Sat, 14 Nov 2037 11:51:27 -0000; secure; HttpOnly
Set-Cookie: _gh_sess=eyJzZXNzaW9uX2lkIjoiODI5ZGZjZDhlZDFlMjBjZTBhMTljMjk5ZDU1ZDBlODgiLCJsYXN0X3JlYWRfZnJvbV9yZXBsaWNhcyI6MTUxMDY2MDI4NzMxNywiX2NzcmZfdG9rZW4iOiIvTjkya2RHLzJJN2dtbU12eWQ3UGJDeTJ0aU1tZHJrci8wVzlpMi9yajFZPSJ9--5920790d2e11e8d4a32177a14ac25fae6e8f9789; path=/; secure; HttpOnly
X-Request-Id: b31804a05047fd1326fe28cf3d6f33aa
X-Runtime: 0.036845
Expect-CT: max-age=2592000, report-uri="https://api.github.com/_private/browser/errors"
Content-Security-Policy: default-src 'none'; base-uri 'self'; block-all-mixed-content; child-src render.githubusercontent.com; connect-src 'self' uploads.github.com status.github.com collector.githubapp.com api.github.com www.google-analytics.com github-cloud.s3.amazonaws.com github-production-repository-file-5c1aeb.s3.amazonaws.com github-production-upload-manifest-file-7fdce7.s3.amazonaws.com github-production-user-asset-6210df.s3.amazonaws.com wss://live.github.com; font-src assets-cdn.github.com; form-action 'self' github.com gist.github.com; frame-ancestors 'none'; img-src 'self' data: assets-cdn.github.com identicons.github.com collector.githubapp.com github-cloud.s3.amazonaws.com *.githubusercontent.com; media-src 'none'; script-src assets-cdn.github.com; style-src 'unsafe-inline' assets-cdn.github.com
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=31536000; includeSubdomains; preload
Public-Key-Pins: max-age=0; pin-sha256="WoiWRyIOVNa9ihaBciRSC7XHjliYS9VwUGOIud4PB18="; pin-sha256="RRM1dGqnDFsCJXBTHky16vi1obOlCgFFn/yOhI/y+ho="; pin-sha256="k2v657xBsOVe1PQRwOsHsw3bsGT2VzIqz5K+59sNQws="; pin-sha256="K87oWBWM9UZfyddvDfoxL+8lpNyoUB2ptGtn0fv6G2Q="; pin-sha256="IQBnNBEiFuhj+8x6X8XLgh01V9Ic5/V3IRQLNFFc7v4="; pin-sha256="iie1VXtL7HzAMF+/PVPR9xzT80kQxdZeJ+zduCB3uj0="; pin-sha256="LvRiGEjRqfzurezaWuj8Wie2gyHMrW5Q06LspMnox7A="; includeSubDomains
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
X-Frame-Options: deny
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
X-Runtime-rack: 0.043225
X-GitHub-Request-Id: 9AB0:25783:6A523:B814E:5A0AD8BE

=Best Practices=

Please note the best practices below suggest methods to change webserver configuration to add headers. Security headers can also be successfully added to your application at the software level as well in almost every web language. Many web frameworks add some of these headers automatically.

==Response Headers==

  • [[#hsts_bp HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)]]
  • [[#hpkp_bp Public Key Pinning Extension for HTTP (HPKP)]]
  • [[#xfo_bp X-Frame-Options]]
  • [[#xxxsp_bp X-XSS-Protection]]
  • [[#xcto_bp X-Content-Type-Options]]
  • [[#csp_bp Content-Security-Policy]]
  • [[#xpcdp_bp X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies]]
  • [[#rp_bp Referrer-Policy]]
  • [[#ect_bp Expect-CT]]
  • [[#fp_bp Feature-Policy]]

==<div id="hsts_bp">HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)</div>==

  • Apache :Edit your apache configuration file and add the following to your VirtualHost.
    ::Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=63072000; includeSubdomains"

  • nginx :Edit your nginx configuration file and add the following snippet.
    ::add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=63072000; includeSubdomains";

  • lighttpd :Edit your lighttpd configuration file and add the following snippet.
    ::setenv.add-response-header = ("Strict-Transport-Security" => "max-age=63072000; includeSubdomains",)

  • IIS :Visit https://scotthelme.co.uk/hardening-your-http-response-headers/#strict-transport-security

==<div id="hpkp_bp">Public Key Pinning Extension for HTTP (HPKP)</div>==

  • Apache :Edit your apache configuration file and add the following to your VirtualHost.
    ::Header set Public-Key-Pins "pin-sha256=\"klO23nT2ehFDXCfx3eHTDRESMz3asj1muO+4aIdjiuY=\"; pin-sha256=\"633lt352PKRXbOwf4xSEa1M517scpD3l5f79xMD9r9Q=\"; max-age=2592000; includeSubDomains"

  • nginx :Edit your nginx configuration file and add the following snippet.
    ::add_header Public-Key-Pins "pin-sha256=\"klO23nT2ehFDXCfx3eHTDRESMz3asj1muO+4aIdjiuY=\"; pin-sha256=\"633lt352PKRXbOwf4xSEa1M517scpD3l5f79xMD9r9Q=\"; max-age=2592000; includeSubDomains";

  • lighttpd :Edit your lighttpd configuration file and add the following snippet.
    ::setenv.add-response-header = ("Public-Key-Pins" => "pin-sha256=\"klO23nT2ehFDXCfx3eHTDRESMz3asj1muO+4aIdjiuY=\"; pin-sha256=\"633lt352PKRXbOwf4xSEa1M517scpD3l5f79xMD9r9Q=\"; max-age=2592000; includeSubDomains",)

  • IIS :Visit https://scotthelme.co.uk/hardening-your-http-response-headers/#public-key-pinning

==<div id="xfo_bp">X-Frame-Options</div>==

  • Apache :Add this line below into your site’s configuration to configure Apache to send X-Frame-Options header for all pages.
    ::Header set X-Frame-Options "DENY"

  • nginx :Add snippet below into configuration file to send X-Frame-Options header.
    ::add_header X-Frame-Options "DENY";

  • lighttpd :Add snippet below into configuration file to send X-Frame-Options header.
    ::setenv.add-response-header = ("X-Frame-Options" => "DENY",)

  • IIS :Visit https://scotthelme.co.uk/hardening-your-http-response-headers/#x-frame-options

==<div id="xxxsp_bp">X-XSS-Protection</div>==

Add appropriate snippet into configuration file.

  • Apache :Header set X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block"

  • nginx :add_header X-XSS-Protection "1;mode=block";

  • lighttpd :setenv.add-response-header = ("X-XSS-Protection" => "1; mode=block",)

  • IIS :Visit https://scotthelme.co.uk/hardening-your-http-response-headers/#x-xss-protection

==<div id="xcto_bp">X-Content-Type-Options</div>==

Add appropriate snippet into configuration file.

  • Apache :Header set X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff"

  • nginx :add_header X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff";

  • lighttpd :setenv.add-response-header = ("X-Content-Type-Options" => "nosniff",)

  • IIS :Visit https://scotthelme.co.uk/hardening-your-http-response-headers/#x-content-type-options

==<div id="csp_bp">Content-Security-Policy</div>==

Add appropriate snippet into configuration file.

  • Apache :Header set Content-Security-Policy "script-src 'self'; object-src 'self'"

  • nginx :add_header Content-Security-Policy "script-src 'self'; object-src 'self'";

  • lighttpd :setenv.add-response-header = ("Content-Security-Policy" => "script-src 'self'; object-src 'self'",)

  • IIS :Visit https://scotthelme.co.uk/hardening-your-http-response-headers/#content-security-policy

==<div id="xpcdp_bp">X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies</div>==

Add appropriate snippet into configuration file.

  • Apache :Header set X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies "none"

  • nginx :add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies "none";

  • lighttpd :setenv.add-response-header = ("X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies" => "none",)

  • IIS :[update needed]

==<div id="rp_bp">Referrer-Policy</div>==

  • Apache :[update needed]

  • nginx :[update needed]

  • lighttpd :[update needed]

  • IIS :[update needed]

==<div id="ect_bp">Expect-CT</div>==

  • Apache :[update needed]

  • nginx :[update needed]

  • lighttpd :[update needed]

  • IIS :[update needed]

==<div id="fp_bp">Feature-Policy</div>== Disables camera, microphone, and payment API. More features can be added to restrict if desired (vr, midi, etc).

  • Apache :Header set Feature-Policy: camera: 'none'; payment: 'none'; microphone: 'none'

  • nginx :[update needed]

  • lighttpd :[update needed]

  • IIS :[update needed]

=FAQs=

; What is HTTP header?
HTTP header fields are part of HTTP message defined in RFC 2616 that consists of requests from client to server and responses from server to client that define parameters for the communication process including: language, compression support, security and a lot of resources.
; Is there a standard for HTTP headers?
A core set of fields is standardized by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in RFCs 7230, 7231, 7232, 7233, 7234, and 7235. The permanent registry of header fields and repository of provisional registrations are maintained by the IANA. Additional field names and permissible values may be defined by each application. Non-standard header fields were conventionally marked by prefixing the field name with X- but this convention was deprecated in June 2012 because of the inconveniences it caused when non-standard fields became standard. An earlier restriction on use of Downgraded- was lifted in March 2013.
; Why I need worry about that?
Like other initiatives supported by OWASP, this project have the objetive to help all community to conceive, develop, acquire, operate and maintain applications that can be trusted as provide useful information about the use relative of secure http headers by applications and platforms supported.
; Where can apply secure features presented by this project?
The effectiveness provides by secure http headers demands that application or some component of infrastructure indicate proper header and correspondent value as like use of some client that implement that feature.
; When I consider apply this improvements?
The short response it’s right now. However we believe in approach more responsible. So we recommend conducting a planning and preliminary study, as well the incremental inclusion of insurance headers.

Headers like: [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Certificate_and_Public_Key_Pinning#HTTP_pinning Public Key Pinning Extension for HTTP (HPKP)], [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/HTTP_Strict_Transport_Security HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)] and [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Content_Security_Policy Content Security Policy (CSP)] need a special attention in order not to cause any incident. Some real cases about to use of secure headers can be seen:

  • [http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2016/03/22/secure-websites-shun-http-public-key-pinning.html Secure websites shun HTTP Public Key Pinning]
  • [http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2016/03/30/http-public-key-pinning-youre-doing-it-wrong.html HTTP Public Key Pinning: You’re doing it wrong!]
  • [https://blogs.dropbox.com/tech/2015/09/on-csp-reporting-and-filtering/ CSP On Reporting and Filtering]
  • [https://developer.chrome.com/extensions/contentSecurityPolicy Content Security Policy (CSP)]
; Who can be responsible to apply secure features?
The responsability to provides more secure environment it’s a effort that envolve developers, system administrators, vendors of web browsers and end user.

Like this the success of secure headers strategy depends of proper client, in general a web browser, and web application or some infrastructure component configured appropriately.

; How can I apply secure http headers?
The use of secure headers can occur directly through of handling http response headers or using some framework, in addition to conducting appropriate configuration in web server.

The OWASP: Secure Headers project provides a list of resources and examples to help understand, analyze and configure secure headers.

; What’s the costs relative to apply this actions?
There’s no costs in to use secure headers. However some effort to configure and manage properly configuration will be necessary.

= Acknowledgements = ==Contributors== OWASP Secure Headers Project is developed by a worldwide team of volunteers. The primary contributors to date have been:

  • [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/User:Riramar Ricardo Iramar]
  • [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/User:Jmanico Jim Manico]
  • [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Special:Contributions/Amenezes Alexandre Menezes]

= Road Map and Getting Involved =

Involvement in the development and promotion of OWASP Secure Headers Project is actively encouraged! You do not have to be a security expert in order to contribute. If you want to help send an email to [mailto:ricardo.iramar@owasp.org ricardo.iramar@owasp.org].

== To Do ==

  • Perform public to scan websites and view stats regarding these headers. Automated scanning of the top 1m sites on the web; filtering of said sites to view stats across industries and countries; published database dumps for public consumption/tools; scanning of individual sites; comparing multiple scanned sites.
  • Consistent reports regarding this secure headers, their usage, any changes to existing headers.
  • Reorganize “Best Practices” tab and include a section for related security best practices around headers (e.g. “Remove Server Header” and “Remove X-Powered-By Header”).
  • Create a parser to grab the headers from https://scans.io and populate the MySQL database.

== Doing ==

  • Producing open source, easily implemented, well documented code libraries that enable these headers for a variety of platforms. We’ll prioritize creating and publicizing Node.JS, PHP, Ruby, and Java, but will eventually reach out towards edge cases like Go, Python and others. The key is to make this accessible as possible to developers.
  • Including how to set properly secure headers on IIS.
  • Improve constantly hsecscan tool to detect bad practices and provide link to the best practices above.

== Done ==

  • Creating secure best practices implementations including how to set properly secure headers on the most common platforms (eg. Apache, NGINX and Lighttpd).
  • Divide the “Tools_and_Libraries” tab into two differents tab (Scanners and Libraries).
  • Include link to attack pages.
  • Include Top Websites Examples tab.
  • Move the Best Practices to another tab.
  • Include a new tab only for browser versions compatibility.
  • Include X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies under Headers and Best Practices tab.
  • Include Expect-CT header and update HPKP.
  • Include Feature-Policy.

NOTOC

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